1. Shallow peat with a thickness between 0.5 to 1.0 m
2. Medium deep peat with a thickness between 1.0 to 2.0 m
3. Deep peat with a thickness between 2.0 to 3.0 m
4. Very deep peat with a thickness over 3.0 m
1. Fibric: original vegetative matters can still be identified or minor decomposed
2. Hemic: medium decomposition rate
3. Sapric: advanced decomposition/high decomposition rate
Community living on peat areas for generations utilises the land for agriculture, farming and fishery. During dry season, peat community are used to plant rice, vegetables and aloe vera. On other peat areas, perennials are also the main source of livelihood for the locals, such as rubber and coconut. During the wet season locals starts to nurse fish in bamboo cages, as well as other cattles such as poultry. Some others keep their water buffalos or cows, as they consider those as savings.
According to Wetland International, the extensives of peat swamps on Indonesian large islands reach up to 26 million ha. Between 200 to 300 ha of peatlands are estimatedly converted annually to plantation forest, large scale palm oil estates and crop cultivation by locals. Specific for palm oil, based on research on 2008, Sawit Watch identified at least 100,000 ha land converted to palm oil plantation each year.
Beside climate issue, celaring of peatland also raises endless social conflicts between customary/local communities that area either pro or contra the palm oil development, or between costumary/local communites and palm oil companies and local governments. Such social conflicts started usually with land conflicts ended with victims, both casualties or loss.
By: Abet Nego Tarigan dan Jefri Saragih